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SURVIVE THE GREAT RESET!

This article was contributed by Portfolio Wealth Global.

On October 16th, 1986, Ron Arad, an Israeli pilot tasked with navigation of a Phantom fighter, and chief pilot Yishai Aviram, were on a mission in enemy territory. Flying in the skies of neighboring Lebanon, they were to drop bombs on PLO targets. At some point, while launching one of these bombs, the fuze detonated prematurely, a one-in-a-million malfunction.

This type of bomb, weighing hundreds of pounds and exploding so close to the fighter jet, basically shattered it to pieces. Pilot Yishai testified that he thought this was the end. Co-pilot Ron Arad broke his hand, but came to his senses first, yelling that they were deploying. He ejected himself and Yishai, parachuting down to Lebanon, with hundreds of Amal Movement militia following the path both soldiers were taking towards the landing zone in the surrounding hills. 400 meters separated Ron’s and Yishai’s descent, which proved to be the difference between life in captivity and eventual death for Ron Arad and timely evacuation for Yishai Aviram, who was less injured and had a means of communication (a radio transmitter like a walkie-talkie).

Ron Arad was captured after militia found him hiding, while Yishai was able to direct a military helicopter to his location, whisking him away and back into Israeli territory.

Ron was tortured in the following years in captivity, for the purpose of learning IDF secrets; Israeli intelligence has never been able to pinpoint exactly what ended up happening with him. On May 4th 1988, the Israeli army was attacking the village Arad was imprisoned in, killing a family member of one of his captors. One theory is that he was executed in an act of vengeance, as the remaining family members assumed the military mission was an attempt to extract him, which it wasn’t. A second theory is that with guards gone, he attempted to escape, but was either re-captured, put to death or not able to survive on the run, being that he was weak.

Israel’s prime minister at the time was given a chance to release him early on, in exchange for prisoners that Israel held, along with a USD$3M ransom. He refused.

There was a deal on the table, but paying cash for the release of Arad seemed to be a line in the sand that the government was not willing to cross.

I tell you this story because it is a complicated one; it involves a cocktail of circumstances, which each of us faces in our daily lives, a combination of things that we have zero control over happening to us, coupled with sheer luck and our personal adaptation to them; our intentional will power and self-choice. The country of Israel ended up spending well over $3M, since 1988, in intelligence efforts to find Ron and bring him back. The conclusion that he died in 1988 only became apparent in the 2000s.

What can be learned from this story and applied to your life at this very hour:

  1. One-in-a-million events happen and might end up happening to you, for good and for bad.
  2. When taking risks, understand the cost of making fatal mistakes. Ron had a wife and daughter, who to this day still don’t have closure. If he is indeed dead, no one has come forth to explain what happened to him in those final moments or where his remains are buried.
  3. A closed mind, as had Yitzhak Rabin, then PM of Israel, who simply refused, as a matter of principle, to pay a sum in order to get Ron back, proved to be a fatal error. Open-mindedness requires the ability to take leaps of faith and be tolerant of ideas that are presented to you.
  4. Somewhere, in some weapons factory, was a person who did his job 99.9% right. His actions caused the fuze to malfunction, creating a chain of events involving thousands of people, who, from 1986 until present day, are affected by his lack of attention to detail.

Whatever you do, do it with all your might.

There’s a great reset underway; it will involve many events, which will be out of your control, but adapting to the never-ending drama around you is the difference between victims and victors, between surviving and thriving and between winning and losing, as we undergo rapid transformation in the years ahead.

 

The post SURVIVE THE GREAT RESET! first appeared on SHTF Plan – When It Hits The Fan, Don't Say We Didn't Warn You.

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Coronavirus COVID-19 Dylan Stevens election Elizabeth Neumann Emergency Preparedness Gear Headline News Intelwars Law Enforcement lifestyle industry militarized police militia plandemic Preparedness Roman Zrazhevskiy scamdemic something is wrong tactical apparel Violence Virus

Americans Are Stocking Up On Military Gear Before The Election

Americans by and large on all sides feel like something is brewing over the upcoming election. Many of them are stocking up on military gear in advance to prepare for the already promised violence that’s coming down the pike regardless of who is selected to “win” in a mere 9 days.

Conflict is already on America’s streets in 2020, and “tactical apparel” has become a lifestyle industry serving militarized law-enforcement agents and the freelance gunmen who emulate them. Less than two weeks before Election Day, orders are rolling in as the public attempts to ensure they are protected from the violence, according to a report by Fortune

“It doesn’t matter who gets elected,” founder Roman Zrazhevskiy said of his new customers. “They think that no matter who wins, Biden or Trump, there are going to be people who are upset about the result.” This is exactly how the ruling class is going to play this. They have already planned this out.

“It’s evidence of what many people have been expressing concern about for the last six months — the stress associated with the pandemic, a frustration or anger about various government mitigation efforts and a belief that those efforts are infringing on their individual liberties,” said Elizabeth Neumann, a former assistant secretary for threat prevention at the Department of Homeland Security.

“We’ve seen a large increase [of participation in militia groups] since April — it’s only getting bigger,” said Josh Ellis, owner of MyMilitia.com, which allows users to find groups near them. The fastest-growing, four-month-old Angry Viking, has signed up 1,500 members and has “thousands” waiting to join, according to leader Dylan Stevens, a 41-year-old from Houston who was a personal trainer until Covid-19 hit.

This election has been promised to be violent. The best way to prepare is to stay out of any melee to the best of your ability.  Personally, I have no intention of going anywhere in the days leading up to or after the election. Be safe, be prepared, and this might be a food time to practice the “ray man” skill.

 

The post Americans Are Stocking Up On Military Gear Before The Election first appeared on SHTF Plan – When It Hits The Fan, Don't Say We Didn't Warn You.

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Crime FBI Governor whitmer Insurrection Intelwars Law Enforcement Michigan militia

Federal authorities arrest six men in alleged plot to kidnap Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer

Federal authorities have arrested six men in connection with what they say was a conspiracy to kidnap Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer (D).

The conspiracy was a described by the FBI as a plot to violently overthrow the state government in Michigan, WITI-TV reported. The investigation into this conspiracy involved multiple informants and undercover FBI agents.

Documents filed in court Thursday allege that six men — Adam Fox, Barry Croft, Ty Garbin, Kaleb Franks, Daniel Harris, and Brandon Caserta — plotted to kidnap the governor.

According to the FBI, Croft, Fox, and about 13 other men met in Dublin, Ohio, on June 6 to form a self-sufficient society that would be based on the U.S. Bill of Rights. They allegedly discussed plans to achieve this aim violently.

“Several members talked about murdering ‘tyrants’ or ‘taking’ a sitting governor,” an FBI agent wrote in the court affidavit. “The group decided they needed to increase their numbers and encouraged each other to talk to their neighbors and spread their message.”

Fox allegedly reached out to a Michigan-based militia group to recruit men to attack the state Capitol building and take hostages, including the governor.

“Fox said he needed ‘200 men’ to storm the Capitol building in Lansing, Michigan, and take hostages, including the Governor. Fox explained they would try the Governor of Michigan for ‘treason,’ and he said they would execute the plan before the November 2020 elections,” the FBI said.

NBC News reported that the involvement of that militia in the plot to kidnap the governor “appears to be minimal as the group charged today allegedly discussed keeping the broader militia out of their plan.”

More from WITI:

According to the FBI, it learned of the plan through confidential sources and undercover agents over several months who attended militia group meetings. The FBI said the militia group would hold field training exercises on private property in remote areas of Michigan, where they would engage in firearm training and tactical drills.

At one point, the FBI said the group had a meeting in Grand Rapids in the basement of a shop that was accessed through a trap door hidden under a rug on the main floor. At that business, the FBI said they discussed the plan for the Capitol and planned to use “Molotov cocktails” to destroy police cars.

The FBI said Fox called Whitmer a “tyrant b****” and asked the group to be linked with other systems and asked for ideas of what they can do.

The militia group also met in Ohio and Wisconsin, the FBI reported,
and on July 11 in Wisconsin, Croft and another member tried to make an
improvised explosive device using black powder, balloons, a fuse, and
BBs for shrapnel.

The FBI said they have recordings of conversations discussing plans to attack a Michigan State Police facility and to shoot up Whitmer’s vacation home. In one of these recordings, Fox allegedly said the best plan was to “kidnap her outside her vacation home.”

“Snatch and grab, man. Grab the f***in’ governor. Just grab the bitch. Because at that point, we do that, dude — it’s over,” Fox allegedly said, according to the FBI.

The FBI said in late August the alleged conspirators took pictures and video of Whitmer’s vacation home and researched how far the police were from its location. A few weeks later in mid-September, the group allegedly created and detonated an IED surrounded by human silhouette targets and planned to put a similar device under an overpass to divert police while they kidnapped the governor.

The FBI said Fox told one of their sources he had purchased an 800,000-volt taser to use in the kidnapping. In conversation with an undercover officer, the group determined it would cost about $4,000 to get the explosives they allegedly intended to use for the IED and made plans to raise the funds over the next few weeks.

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Images show man with badly shot arm was pointing handgun at shooter while chasing him with mob in Kenosha street

Amid two of the shootings in Kenosha, Wisconsin, late Tuesday night, video shows a mob chasing down a male carrying a rifle — and the rioters had hollered that he had already shot someone.

One person is seen early in the clip hitting the male carrying the rifle from behind then scurrying to the sidewalk.


Image source: Twitter video screenshot via @bgonthescene

Then at least four other men are seen converging around the person carrying the rifle who soon appears to trip and fall in the middle of the street.


Image source: Twitter video screenshot via @bgonthescene

“Kick his ass!” one person was heard yelling on the clip.

One man wearing white pants jumps toward the gun-wielding male’s head, after which the male holding the rifle fires upward toward him. It’s not clear if the man wearing white pants was armed, but he runs off and doesn’t appear injured.


Image source: Twitter video screenshot via @bgonthescene

But two others try tangling with the male holding the rifle — and both to no avail. One falls in a heap in the street — it isn’t clear if he was shot. The other man who gave chase, however, was shot in the arm at close range.


Image source: Twitter video screenshot via @bgonthescene

Graphic video later showed the man with the badly shot arm — a large chunk between his forearm and bicep was missing — being attended to in the street.

Well, it turns out that he was pointing a handgun at the shooter beforehand — and was even holding his handgun after a bullet took out a large chunk of his right arm.


Image source: Twitter video screenshot via @bgonthescene

Here’s a couple of images journalist Andy Ngo posted:


Image source: Twitter, redacted via @MrAndyNgo

And here are other looks from another poster:


Image source: Twitter, redacted via @Joes_Eat

Here’s the clip:

Anything else?

The victim who was shot in the arm ran away from the shooter, bleeding heavily and screaming repeatedly that he needed a medic, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel reported, adding that more gunshots followed. A bystander who was livestreaming helped the victim with tying a tourniquet around his arm, the paper added.

In relation to the alleged shooter, BlazeTV’s Elijah Schaffer posted the following clip on Twitter:

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Black Lives Matter Fatal shootings Intelwars Jacob blake Kenosha rioting militia watch

Two fatally shot in Kenosha overnight as rioters and ‘militia’ square off in streets

Two people were fatally shot and another was injured by gunfire in Kenosha, Wisconsin, as rioters and “militia” squared off in the streets on the heels of the police-involved shooting of a black man, Jacob Blake, on Sunday.

Kenosha police early Wednesday morning said authorities were looking for a man armed with a long gun, the
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel reported.

What are the details?

One victim was shot in the head and another in the chest late Tuesday, just before midnight, Kenosha County Sheriff David Beth told the paper, adding that Beth didn’t know where the third person was shot — although video posted to social media showed someone had been shot in the arm.

Police said injuries to the third shooting victim weren’t life threatening, the Journal Sentinel reported, adding that the victims’ names, ages, and places of residence were still being determined.

The paper said no one has been apprehended, but noted that Beth said he believed at least one person would be taken into custody soon based on video being reviewed.

“I feel very confident we’ll have him in a very short time,” Beth said, adding that the FBI is assisting police, the Journal-Sentinel reported.

Video posted to Twitter shows at least three people shot.

The paper said a
video clip shows a man sprinting into a car lot at 63th Street and Sheridan Road carrying a long gun — and someone pursuing him appears to throw something toward him, and then multiple gunshots are heard.

Another clip posted by BlazeTV’s Elijah Schaffer shows a male, who apparently was shot in the head in the aforementioned incident, with a group around him and applying pressure to the wound.

“Call the police!” someone hollers.

A video posted by Shelby Talcott of the Daily Caller shows bystanders carrying the person shot in the head to a hospital:

More from the Journal-Sentinel:

Other videos show a man who seems to be the same man wielding a long gun while running north on Sheridan Road, being pursued by people screaming that he shot someone. He falls to the ground and fires the gun at people who seem to be trying to disarm him. While on the ground, he appears to shoot two of them, one in the torso and another in the arm.

The victim who was shot in the arm ran away from the shooter, bleeding heavily and screaming repeatedly that he needed a medic. More gunshots followed. A bystander who was live-streaming helped the victim with tying a tourniquet around his arm.

The gunman is then seen heading north toward several police tactical vehicles, his arms raised, according to video footage. The tactical vehicles drive by him.

Beth told the paper it was unclear if there was more than one shooter — but Schaffer posted the following:

Beth also told the Journal-Sentinel that self-described militia members have been patrolling Kenosha’s streets in recent nights, but that he didn’t know if the shooter was with one.

“They’re a militia,” Beth added to the paper. “They’re like a vigilante group.”

On Tuesday, a group called the Kenosha Guard asked members and Facebook followers to come downtown to defend the city, the Journal-Sentinel said, adding that one post read: “Any patriots willing to take up arms and defend out [sic] City tonight from the evil thugs? Nondoubt [sic] they are currently planning on the next part of the City to burn tonight!”

The paper said a later post to Kenosha Police Chief Daniel Miskinis read, in part: “I ask that you do NOT have your officers tell us to go home under threat of arrest as you have done in the past. We are willing to talk to KPD and open a discussion. It is evident, that no matter how many Officers, deputies, and other law enforcement officers that are here, you will still be outnumbered.”

White protester uses N-word while antagonizing group that showed up with rifles

A video recorded earlier in the evening shows a white protester antagonizing the group that showed up with rifles to ward off rioters. Toward the end of the clip, this individual uses the N-word as he dares the group with guns to “shoot me!” — which runs counter to the mainstream media narrative that white supremacists are behind the deadly violence, as someone from the protesting side openly used racist language in the presence of black people.

The clip in question is the second in the below tweet. (Content warning: Language, racial slurs):

More from Schaffer:

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actions Armed Barber citations civil disobedience Civil Liberties COVID-19 Dana nessel Daniel Brewer Depression government tyranny Gretchen Whitmer Headline News human rights Intelwars Karl Manke LIES make a living Michigan militia plandemic refuse to obey rights ryan Jarvi scamdemic stand up support each other

Michigan Militia Vow To Protect Barber Who Won’t Close Shop

We are seeing militias begin to rise up and do what they are supposed to do: protect the public from the tyranny of the police. In Michigan, a militia group is vowing to protect a barber who refuses to close his shop from the order followers and police tyranny.

Members of an armed Michigan militia say they will stand at the door of a barbershop in Owosso to protect the owner from being arrested for allegedly violating the state’s lockdown order. Karl Manke, who is 77-years-old, opened his shop last week in defiance of Governor Gretchen Whitmer’s order, saying he has “lived under 14 presidents, and this is the worst depression I’ve lived under, and I’m not going to live under it.”

“We are here to make sure he doesn’t get arrested,” Daniel Brewer, a member of the militia, told local media on Saturday. “We’re willing to stand in front of that door and block the entrance so the police will have no entry there today.”

This is what it means to come together with an understanding of who is taking your rights away. More Americans need to stand up and support each other against the brutal police state stomping down on them as governors across the country commit horrendous power grabs that even Adolf Hitler would be jealous of.

If You Want To Be Free, Stop Complying With Tyranny

Manke says he still has rights, even during a scamdemic, saying: “I believe it’s my right to work to make my living, and that’s what I’m going to do.”

The ruling class is incredibly upset that Manke is thinking for himself and refusing to obey their commands. “Mr. Manke’s actions are not a display of harmless civil disobedience,” said Ryan Jarvi, a spokesman for Attorney General Dana Nessel. “His actions are counterproductive to the collective effort businesses and communities everywhere have made to slow the spread of COVID-19, and, by opening the doors to his business, he’s putting the lives of many more Michiganders at risk.”

Manke has been cited twice for civil disobedience and, after his shop was packed with customers over the weekend, he said he has no plans to close.

As situations like this one arise all over the country, it’s time to stand together as Americans and oppose the police state as much as possible. Our children are going to have to live the world currently being molded by the authoritarian ruling class, and it’s not looking like it will be a very bright one if we can’t all reject this outright tyranny.

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actions Armed Barber citations civil disobedience Civil Liberties COVID-19 Dana nessel Daniel Brewer Depression government tyranny Gretchen Whitmer Headline News human rights Intelwars Karl Manke LIES make a living Michigan militia plandemic refuse to obey rights ryan Jarvi scamdemic stand up support each other

Michigan Militia Vow To Protect Barber Who Won’t Close Shop

We are seeing militias begin to rise up and do what they are supposed to do: protect the public from the tyranny of the police. In Michigan, a militia group is vowing to protect a barber who refuses to close his shop from the order followers and police tyranny.

Members of an armed Michigan militia say they will stand at the door of a barbershop in Owosso to protect the owner from being arrested for allegedly violating the state’s lockdown order. Karl Manke, who is 77-years-old, opened his shop last week in defiance of Governor Gretchen Whitmer’s order, saying he has “lived under 14 presidents, and this is the worst depression I’ve lived under, and I’m not going to live under it.”

“We are here to make sure he doesn’t get arrested,” Daniel Brewer, a member of the militia, told local media on Saturday. “We’re willing to stand in front of that door and block the entrance so the police will have no entry there today.”

This is what it means to come together with an understanding of who is taking your rights away. More Americans need to stand up and support each other against the brutal police state stomping down on them as governors across the country commit horrendous power grabs that even Adolf Hitler would be jealous of.

If You Want To Be Free, Stop Complying With Tyranny

Manke says he still has rights, even during a scamdemic, saying: “I believe it’s my right to work to make my living, and that’s what I’m going to do.”

The ruling class is incredibly upset that Manke is thinking for himself and refusing to obey their commands. “Mr. Manke’s actions are not a display of harmless civil disobedience,” said Ryan Jarvi, a spokesman for Attorney General Dana Nessel. “His actions are counterproductive to the collective effort businesses and communities everywhere have made to slow the spread of COVID-19, and, by opening the doors to his business, he’s putting the lives of many more Michiganders at risk.”

Manke has been cited twice for civil disobedience and, after his shop was packed with customers over the weekend, he said he has no plans to close.

As situations like this one arise all over the country, it’s time to stand together as Americans and oppose the police state as much as possible. Our children are going to have to live the world currently being molded by the authoritarian ruling class, and it’s not looking like it will be a very bright one if we can’t all reject this outright tyranny.

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armed people civil rights control disobey elitists freedom Headline News Intelwars liberty Martial Law militia National Guard Protests revolution social unrest troops deployed Uprising

America On The Brink? Shocking Images Show “Pennsylvania Militia” Rolling Up To “Reopen America” Rally

This article was originally published by Tyler Durden at ZeroHedge. 

America could be standing on the edge of a revolution. Seriously, well, with National Guard troops deployed across the country, any uprising would likely be squashed.

We noted late last month that a “social bomb” was set to detonate over major Western cities. It was thought that the epicenter of unrest could begin deep within inner cities, such as those in Baltimore and Detroit, but that might not be the case.

It appears tensions are soaring among anti-quarantine protesters and state governments. The lockdown backlash started last Thursday in Lansing, Michigan.

Anti-quarantine rallies sprouted up across the country over the weekend, organized by right-wing groups that held rallies in Texas, Indiana, New Hampshire, Nevada, Maryland, Utah, Wisconsin, Washington, and Colorado.

Attempting to show force, some protesters wielded rifles, handguns, and shotguns, along with American flags, Betsy Ross flags, Trump signs and “Don’t Tread On Me” flags right up to the doorsteps of some state capital buildings.

The sight is absolutely stunning, but before we continue, we must understand the right-wing groups that organized the rallies are fed up with quarantine orders enforced by state governments to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. While it is open for discussion if the strict lockdowns were worth it, several things are evident, and why many of these protesters are angry, is that the economy has crashed into depression, 22 million jobs lost, businesses bankrupted, and hunger crisis unfolding. Combined this all together, and a perfect storm of unrest could be nearing.

While we could show you images of the latest rallies from across the country, that would be a bit too much. So, let’s focus on the “reopen” Pennsylvania demonstration on Monday (April 20). The location was Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, more specifically, at the Pennsylvania State Capitol Complex.

The Daily Caller, citing AFP images, captured the moment when an M35 series 2½-ton 6×6 military truck, converted for civilian use, and packed with heavily armed protesters, arrived at the demonstration.

Seen within the rear of the vehicle, protesters were wielding AR-15s and shotguns.

Here’s a video of the “Pennsylvania Militia” rolling up to the rally.

 

Another protester was carrying an AK-47 or AK-47 style rifle.

Another group with guns.

[Unable to Link Tweet]

More pictures show the overall crowd at the steps of the capitol building, holding signs that read: “Free PA,” “Tyranny kills,” “Let America Work Again,” and “We Do Not Consent.”

Rallies to “reopen” the American economy unfolded across the country after President Trump tweeted: “LIBERATE MICHIGAN!,” “LIBERATE MINNESOTA!,” and “LIBERATE VIRGINIA, and save your great 2nd Amendment. It is under siege!”

President Trump is eager to reopen the economy and save it from crushing depression. The danger of reviving the economy too soon is that it could spark the second wave of the coronavirus.

With warmer weather trends expected for the US, anti-quarantine rallies are only set to increase.

 

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assault weapons assault weapons ban gun control gun laws gun restrictions gun rights guns Intelwars militia Northam Ralph Northam Virginia Virginia democrats Vote

Democratic Gov. Ralph Northam suffers embarrassing loss as assault weapons ban is rejected in Virginia

Virginia Democratic Gov. Ralph Northam’s all-in push to ban the sale of assault weapons in Virginia was rejected in the state’s Senate after moderate Democrats joined Republican colleagues to sink the initiative Monday.

Cheers erupted in the committee room packed with gun supporters as senators voted to put the bill on hold for a year so that the state’s crime commission could further study the issue, the Associated Press reported.

Four Democrats decided to vote with Republicans on the issue, rejecting legislation that aimed to outlaw new sales of some semiautomatic firearms, such as the AR-15 rifle, and require current owners of such firearms to register with the government within the year. The bill would also have criminalized the possession of magazines that hold more than 12 rounds.

The bill’s rejection is an embarrassing loss for Northam and Democrats in Virginia, who aimed to use their narrow and new-found majority to push a broad progressive gun control agenda in the state.

Late last month, the state’s Democrat-led House, with Northam’s backing, moved forward a legislative package containing seven gun control measures, among them was the assaults weapon ban which eventually passed the House last week. But the measures were always destined to face a tough test in the state’s Senate, where Democrats only hold a slight 21-19 majority, and thus flipping three Democrats is all that is required to sink a bill.

In response to the news, the governor’s spokeswoman vowed “we will be back next year” after sharing that the governor was disappointed by the outcome.

Overwhelming opposition from gun rights supporters have so far stymied efforts by Northam and Democratic lawmakers in the state.

In December, dozens of counties in Virginia vowed to become “sanctuary counties” for gun owners to protect their citizens’ Second Amendment rights should any anti-gun laws be passed. One county went a step further, passing a resolution to fund a militia, per the U.S. Constitution, should the state infringe on their rights.

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What Does the Militia Act of 1792 Tell Us About the Second Amendment?

Whenever a debate comes up relating to the Second Amendment, somebody inevitably asserts that the right to keep and bear arms only applies to members of the National Guard.

They come to this conclusion based on the first clause of the Second Amendment – “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State…” But even if that clause limited the right to keep and bear arms to militia members – and it doesn’t – those who make the “National Guard only” argument don’t understand what the militia actually was at the time.

As I pointed out in an article taking on financial writer Brett Arends when he tried to play constitutional expert, the militia was made up the population at large – not a select group of professional soldiers. As George Mason said during the Virginia ratifying convention:

Mr. Chairman, a worthy member has asked who are the militia, if they be not the people of this country, and if we are not to be protected from the fate of the Germans, Prussians, &c., by our representation?  I ask, Who are the militia? They consist now of the whole people, except a few public officers. But I cannot say who will be the militia of the future day. If that paper on the table gets no alteration, the militia of the future day may not consist of all classes, high and low, and rich and poor… [Emphasis added]

Practically speaking, “the whole people” generally meant all able-bodied white men. The point is the militia wasn’t a select military force. It was a defense force made up of the general population. In fact, part of the reason the Second Amendment was proposed was to ensure the people at large would not be disarmed and replaced by a “select militia.” I expand on this argument in my original takedown of Arends.

But I left out one bit of evidence that further undermines the “National Guard only” narrative. The Militia Acts of 1792 were some of the first bills passed by the First Congress. The Militia Act passed on May 8, 1792, defines the militia in a way that supports the broader understanding of the term used by Mason and others during the ratification debates.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the respective States, resident therein, who is or shall be of age of eighteen years, and under the age of forty-five years (except as is herein after excepted) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia, by the Captain or Commanding Officer of the company, within whose bounds such citizen shall reside, and that within twelve months after the passing of this Act. And it shall at all time hereafter be the duty of every such Captain or Commanding Officer of a company, to enroll every such citizen as aforesaid, and also those who shall, from time to time, arrive at the age of 18 years, or being at the age of 18 years, and under the age of 45 years (except as before excepted) shall come to reside within his bounds; and shall without delay notify such citizen of the said enrollment, by the proper non-commissioned Officer of the company, by whom such notice may be proved. That every citizen, so enrolled and notified, shall, within six months thereafter, provide himself with a good musket or firelock, a sufficient bayonet and belt, two spare flints, and a knapsack, a pouch, with a box therein, to contain not less than twenty four cartridges, suited to the bore of his musket or firelock, each cartridge to contain a proper quantity of powder and ball; or with a good rifle, knapsack, shot-pouch, and powder-horn, twenty balls suited to the bore of his rifle, and a quarter of a pound of powder; and shall appear so armed, accoutred and provided, when called out to exercise or into service, except, that when called out on company days to exercise only, he may appear without a knapsack. That the commissioned Officers shall severally be armed with a sword or hanger, and espontoon; and that from and after five years from the passing of this Act, all muskets from arming the militia as is herein required, shall be of bores sufficient for balls of the eighteenth part of a pound; and every citizen so enrolled, and providing himself with the arms, ammunition and accoutrements, required as aforesaid, shall hold the same exempted from all suits, distresses, executions or sales, for debt or for the payment of taxes. [Emphasis added]

So, pretty much every able-bodied free man was part of the militia.

You’ll also note that the act actually requires all men between the age of 18 and 45 to have military-grade weapons. This kind of undermines the whole, “the Second Amendment wasn’t so you could have an ‘assault rifles’” argument.

As I said in my original article, the debate over the militia is a bit overplayed. Preservation of state militias made up of the “whole body of people” was certainly part of the impetus that led to the ratification of the Second Amendment, but the right to keep and bear arms wasn’t exclusively attached to militia service. It was part of the broader natural right of self-defense. The text of the Second Amendment makes clear that the right to keep an bear arms applied to everybody. “The right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Not some of the people.

All of them.

And this was necessary because the militia included virtually all of the free men, as the Militia Act shows.

I don’t generally give a lot of weight to congressional acts, judicial opinions or presidential actions when it comes to determining the original meaning of the Constitution – even to those that occurred immediately after ratification. The federal government quickly went off the rails and began usurping power, and the fact that Congress, a president or a court did something doesn’t definitively prove it was constitutional. Nevertheless, the militia act reaffirms the definition of the militia expressed during the ratification debates by both opponents and supporters of the Constitution. It provides what I would call “supplemental evidence” that further strengthens the case.

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